"Cooperation is ingrained in the DNA of the NHS"

-Matt Hancock

In response The Mac to his Publication

DNA is a dynamic and adaptable molecule.

As such, the nucleotide sequences found within it are subject to change as the result of a phenomenon called mutation.

Depending on how a particular mutation modifies an organism's genetic makeup, it can prove harmless, helpful, or even hurtful.

In response The Mac to his Publication

DNA-functionalization of quantum dots is the attachment of strands of DNA to the surface of a quantum dot. Although quantum dots with Cd have some cytotoxic release, researchers have functionalized quantum dots for biocompatibility and bound them to DNA in order to combine the advantages of both materials. Quantum dots are commonly used for imaging biological systems in vitro and in vivo in animal studies due to their excellent optical properties when excited by light, while DNA has numerous bioengineering applications, including: genetic engineering, self-assembling nanostructures, protein binding, and biomarkers. The ability to visualize the chemical and biological processes of DNA allows feedback to optimize and learn about these small scale behaviors.

In response The Mac to his Publication

Quantum dots are inorganic nanocrystal semiconductors that behave exceptionally well as fluorophores. In the field of biology, fluorophores are one of the few tools that allow us to peer inside of a live biological system at a cellular level. As a fluorophore, the size of a quantum dot directly reflects the wavelength of light emitted, allowing for a highly tunable color spectrum.

In response The Mac to his Publication

A spectrum disorder is a mental disorder that includes a range of linked conditions, sometimes also extending to include singular symptoms and traits. The different elements of a spectrum either have a similar appearance or are thought to be caused by the same underlying mechanism.

In response The Mac to his Publication

Summary
Quantum dots (QDs) are luminescent nanoparticles with unique optical properties that have been exploited for single-cell and whole-animal imaging. When coated with proteins or biocompatible polymers, QDs are not deleterious to cells and organisms. However, when QDs are retained in cells or accumulated in the body for a long period of time, their coatings may be degraded, yielding “naked” QDs. Here, we show that “naked” QDs induce damage to the plasma membrane, mitochondrion, and nucleus, leading to cell death. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important players in mediating QD-induced cellular damage.

In response The Mac to his Publication

According to the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), as of July 11, 2016, the reported average incidence of children diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) was 1 in 68 (1.46%) among 8-year-old children born in 2004 and living within the 11 monitoring sites' surveillance areas in the United States of America (USA) in 2012. ASD is a multifaceted neurodevelopmental disorder that is also considered a hidden disability, as, for the most part; there are no apparent morphological differences between children with ASD and typically developing children. ASD is diagnosed based upon a triad of features including impairment in socialization, impairment in language, and repetitive and stereotypic behaviors.

In response The Mac to his Publication

The increasing incidence of ASD in the pediatric population and the lack of successful curative therapies make ASD one of the most challenging disorders for medicine. ASD neurobiology is thought to be associated with oxidative stress, as shown by increased levels of reactive oxygen species and increased lipid peroxidation, as well as an increase in other indicators of oxidative stress. Children with ASD diagnosis are considered more vulnerable to oxidative stress because of their imbalance in intracellular and extracellular glutathione levels and decreased glutathione reserve capacity.

In response The Mac to his Publication

Oxidative stress induced by engineered NP is due to acellular factors such as particle surface, size, composition, and presence of metals, while cellular responses such as mitochondrial respiration, NP-cell interaction, and immune cell activation are responsible for ROS-mediated damage.

In response The Mac to his Publication

Despite the common use of nanomaterials, we are not able to precisely define their toxicity towards humans and surrounding biota. Although we were able to determine final effects of chronic exposure to nanoparticles which consist of many pathologies such as respiratory diseases, allergies, diseases of cardiovascular system, disorders in embryonic life differentiation and growth disorders, toxic effects on the immune system and cancers.

In response The Mac to his Publication

The most predominantly investigated feature of most nanoparticles is their ability to induce oxidative stress on cellular level. Imbalance in redox state of cells can lead to various malfunctions in their internal metabolism, which in turn can lead to mentioned pathologies on the organismal level if the exposure is persistent and spread wide enough. Imbalance in redox state translate into production of reactive oxygen species in amounts impossible to be scavenged in given time. Many reactive oxygen species play crucial role in physiological processes in properly functioning cells. It was proven on numerous occasions that abundance of ROS, aside from oxidative damage, can lead to more subtle adverse effects tied to disturbances in intra- and intercellular signaling pathways.

In response The Mac to his Publication

There is currently, insufficient knowledge about the toxicity of nanomaterial and a need for more in vivo studies. For the safe and proper implementation of the nanomaterials for biological applications, it is necessary to expand nanotoxicology research in various animal models [6].

To date, the studies that report on toxic effects of Ag-NPs either in vivo [4, 6–12] or in vitro [1, 13–27] provide initial data indicating adverse health effects of cells exposed to Ag-NPs. However, those available, peer-reviewed toxicological data for Ag-NPs are rather divergent and insufficient to assess the toxic effects in humans and laboratory animals. The reason for these discrepancies is not immediately evident but may depend on experimental protocols and/or interferences with test system used [28]

So basically the NHS has been using nanoparticle-vaccines made from nanoparticle-viruses that are blatantly dangerous and cause oxidative stress... yet they still carried on vaccinating children, knowing full well of the side effects, not caring, just covered up the truth and lied to our faces.

In response The Mac to his Publication

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In response The Mac to his Publication

Engineered nanoparticle virus made in a lab?

F liars the whole lot of them.